Department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Methods: Thirty two Wister albino rats of either sex, weighing between 100-150g,
were fed 200
mg/kg or 400 mg/kg aqueous extract of A. marmelos
leaves one hour prior to oral administration of 90% ethanol (1 ml/200 gm
body weight) to induce gastric ulcer. The animals were sacrificed after one
hour and ulcer scores and index were determined. The protective efficacy of A. marmelos aqueous extract was
expressed as percentage protection of ulcer.
Aqueous extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) dose dependent protection
against gastric ulcer formation by ethanol in rat stomach. Percentage
protection of ulcer with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of A. marmelos leave were 19.3% and 37.2% respectively
compared to standard anti-peptic ulcer drug omeprazole (50.4%).
Conclusion: Thus, crude extracts
of A. marmelos leave have been shown
to have potential ability to prevent experimentally induced peptic ulcer
formation in animal model.
IMC J Med Sci 2018; 12(1): 11-14
for Correspondence: Dr. Sharmin Rahman, Assistant Professor, Department of
Pharmacology, Ibrahim Medical College, 122 Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Shahbagh,
Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Peptic ulcer refers to
ulceration in the lower esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and jejunum, and rarely
in the ileum adjacent to a diverticulam. Herbal medicine is fast emerging as an
alternative treatment to available synthetic drugs for the treatment of peptic ulcer
possibly due to lower costs, easy availability, fewer adverse effects and
perceived effectiveness. A. marmelos, commonly
known as ‘Bael’ in Bengali language, is one such plant that grows wildly all
over Bangladesh and also in many countries of South East Asia including India,
Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and Indochina . Extensive chemical investigations on
various parts of the tree have been carried out. Many active constituents has
been isolated from A. marmelos and reported to have anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory
and antimicrobial properties . The present study was designed to demonstrate
the protective effect of aqueous extract of A.
marmelos leaves on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rat model.
study was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Bangladesh.
Leaves of A. marmelos were collected
from Botanical garden, Mirpur, Dhaka and authenticated by the Bangladesh
of plant extract:Collected leaves (1kg) of A. marmelos were sun dried and the dried
material was crushed to coarse powder with mechanical grinder. Aqueous extract
was prepared at the Drug Research Laboratory, Center for Advanced Research of
Science (CARS), Dhaka University. The dried powdered plant part was soaked in distilled
water at room temperature for 72 hour and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated
under vacuum rotator evaporator (40-500C) and semi-liquid extract of
A. marmelos was obtained and
preserved at 40C until used. The extract was diluted with measured
amount of distilled water prior to use to get the required concentration.
Thirty two Wister albino rats of either
sex, weighing between 100-150g were kept under standard condition of light and
temperature, fed with standard rat pellet diet and allowed to drink water ad
anti-peptic ulcer activity of aqueous extracts of A. marmelos leaves was assessed in ethanol induced gastric ulcer in
rat model [2,3]. Experimental animals were randomly selected irrespective of
sex and divided into 4 groups, each group comprising of 8 rats. Rats in group-I
served as control and the other three comprised study groups. All the animals
were kept fasting for 24 hours prior to administration of drugs. Rats in group-I
received distilled water 5 ml/kg body weight and served as negative control. Rats
in group-II and III received aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaves 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively
in 1-2 ml distilled water by baby Ryle’s tube. Rats in group-IV received
omeprazole 20 mg/kg body weight orally as standard reference drug. One hour after administration
of A. marmelos leave extract and
omeprazole, gastric ulcer was induced in rats by administering 90% ethanol (1 ml/200gm
body weight) orally. One hour after ethanol administration rats were sacrificed.
Their stomachs were isolated, washed gently under clean water and cut open
along the greater curvature. The stomachs were then fixed in 10% formalin and the
ulcers were scored as: no ulcer-0, red coloration of mucosa-0.5, spot hemorrhage-1,
hemorrhagic streaks-1.5, ulcer-2 and perforation-3.
Ulcer index (UI) was
calculated using the following formula: UI =UN+US+UP ´ 10-1, where
UN= average of number of ulcers/lesions per animal, US =
average number of severity score of lesions and UP = percentage of
animal with ulcers incidence. Percentage protection of ulcer was calculated by
the following formula:
protection = (mean ulcer index of control – mean ulcer index of test)x100 /
mean ulcer index of control
All the results have been expressed as the mean ± standard
error of mean (SEM). The significance of the differences between treatment and
control group were calculated using student’s t-test.
score, UI and protective effect of aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaves and omeprazole on ethanol induced gastric ulcer
is shown in Table-1. The mean ulcer score and UI of rats fed with distilled
water only (Group-I: control) were 2.83±0.21 and 18.16±0.21 respectively.
Aqueous extract in doses of 200mg/kg body weight (Group-II) and 400 mg/kg body
weight (Group-III) produced a significant dose dependent decrease in ulcer
score to 1.58±0.15 and 0.83±0.25 while ulcer index to 14.66±0.15 and 11.40±0.25
respectively. The differences compared to control Group-I were statistically
significant (p<0.05). Omeprazole (20 mg/kg body weight) also produced highly
significant (p<0.001) decrease in ulcer score (0.67±0.17) and ulcer index
(9.0±0.17) compared to control group (2.83±0.21 and 18.16±0.21) respectively (Table-
1). The percentage protection of ulcer was 19.27%, 37.22% and 50.4% with 200
mg/kg, 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of A. marmelos leaves and omeprazole respectively.
Table-1: Effects of aqueous
extract of A. marmelos leaves on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats
Fig.1: Photograph showing
effect of aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaves on ethanol induced ulcer in rat
ethanol treated gastric mucosa of rat, 1b and 1c: effect of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight dose of aqueous extract
of A. marmelos leaves and 1d: effect of omeprazole (20 mg/kg).
Many studies have demonstrated
the importance of natural products in drug discovery. In this study, ability of
aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaf to
prevent ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rat model has been studied. The effect
of aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaves
was compared to standard anti- peptic ulcer drug, omeprazole. The ulcer index
parameter was used for evaluation of ulcer protective activity. Earlier studies
have shown that aqueous extract of A.
marmelos leaves have variable ulcer protective effects in animal models with
ethanol induced gastric ulcer [4,5]. Aqueous extracts of A. marmelos leaves, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg
body weight, produced significant (p<0.05) anti-ulcer effect, compared to
control and omeprazole (20mg/kg body weight). Percentage protection against ulcer
with 200 and 400mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaves was 19.3% and 37.2% respectively.
The study showed that prior administration of aqueous extract
of A. marmelos leaf can prevent peptic
ulcer significantly. It exhibited a dose dependent protective effect. However,
we did not examine the adverse effects of the leaf extract on hepatobiliary,
renal and other systems of the animal. However,
further study is required to determine the active compound responsible for
anti-ulcer property. Studies regarding pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics,
toxicology and posology of the extract or its active compound should be carried
out to develop a useful ulcer protective agent for human therapy.
Authors acknowledge the valuable opinion and
advice of Prof. Nazma Haque during the preparation of manuscript.
SR was responsible for
experiments, literature search and manuscript writing, MRQ helped in sample
collection, laboratory work and manuscript writing and MIK designed the study
and was overall supervisor.
The authors declare
that they have no competing interests.
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